Lakes of Tajikistan: Tajikistan is rich in lakes and their water surface occupies 1005 square kilometers, the total amount of which more then 1.5 thousand, which is about 1% (one percent) of the country. Area 22 lakes is 625 square kilometers, and the largest of them is lake Karakul. Lake basins are very diverse in origin – tectonic, glacial, karst. Most common are glacial lakes and resulting landslides. Glacial lakes were formed mainly in the Northern and Eastern Pamirs. Water almost all fresh water lakes of Tajikistan, except for Karakul.
Photo of Karakul lake
Among the most high-mountain lakes lakes of Tajikistan are: Chapdara – 4529 meter, Karakul – 3914 meter Zorkul – 4126 meter Turumtaykul – 4213 and others). Glacial origin are also Kulikalon lake (in the Zeravshan Range), Khazar-Chashma (in Hissar ridge) and Iskanderkul.
Dammed lake prevalent in the highlands of central and eastern Tajikistan. These include Sarez and Yashilkul. Most of the lakes in Tajikistan is located in the upper reaches of the Amu Darya river, the Vakhsh and Zeravshan at altitudes over 3,500 meters above sea level. They feed mainly due to the melting of glaciers and snowfields. The water of many lakes strongly mineralized. The youngest is Sarez lake, situated in the valley of the Murghab River, which was formed by an earthquake in 1911 by covering the river rubble stones. this is one of the deepest lakes in Tajikistan. In the Eastern Pamirs user frozen for 120-150 days. Also on the territory of the country of Tajikistan has built reservoirs (artificial lakes).
The study of lakes in Tajikistan has more than a century, the beginning of which dates back to the second half of the 1 century. In 1869-71 years many lakes Zarafshan basin were studied. A first study of the Eastern Pamirs began in 1877-1878’s, when Lake Karakul been described Rangkul, Shorkul, Yashilkul Sasykkulskaya and group lakes. Most of these lakes have been mapped for the first time.
During the twentieth century it was carried out hydrographic survey of a number of large lakes of Tajikistan:. Yashilkul, Bulunkul Rangkul, Shorkul, Turumtaykul etc., which allowed to obtain information about the current state and x and features of the hydrometeorological regime. Even in the first half of the century on the banks of Lake Sarez, Bulunkul Iskanderkul Karakul and became operational meteorological station.
In 1987 he published a reference book AM Nikitin “Lakes of Central Asia”, which was intended to not only size, but also on the thermal, chemical and ice regime of water bodies in the region. However, the study of lakes of our country remains insufficient (Photo 13). Currently in Tajikistan there are about 1300 lakes with a total area of 705 square meters. km and a volume of 46.3 cubic meters. km. The peculiarity of the republic is the fact that almost 80% of the lakes located in the mountains above three thousand meters above sea level.
The origin of lake basins are divided into dammed, glacial, tectonic, moraine, karst, flood, etc. In Zarafshan basin there are entire “steps” dammed lakes: Marguzor, Kulikalon. But the real edge of the lake is the Eastern Pamirs. There, at an altitude of 3915 m is the largest of the lakes of our country above sea level – Karakul area of 380 square meters. km and a depth of 238 m and a volume of more than 26 cubic meters. km. Closed lake, the water is bitter-salty (Photo 14). Even more famous is Lake Sarez. In February 1911 a strong earthquake caused a huge landslide, which blocked the Murghab River. As a result, it formed the lake area of 80 square meters. km and a depth of 500 m and a volume of more than 16 cubic meters. km. Since 1938, on the shore of the lake runs alpine hydrometeorological Irkht, and in the 70s of the last century workers Republican Hydrometeorological mapped the depths of the lake, studied its thermal, chemical and ice mode.
Currently Sarez Lake is the largest repository of fresh water in Tajikistan. Other Pamir mountain lake – Bulunkul is at the bottom of the basin, where on clear winter nights, cold air is stagnant and strongly cooled. This “cold pole” of Tajikistan. There’s more than half a century working hydrometeorological (3744 m above sea level.), Which marked the lowest temperature in the country – 53.3 degrees. Another lake – Yashilkul be used as a regulator of water flow for efficient operation of power plants cascade on the river Gunt.
The main component of the water balance of lakes is surface inflow. Depending on the phase of the high-altitude lakes in the position of their content varies considerably during the year. The duration depends on the phase, the climatic conditions, the nature of runoff water and the lake type balance and varies from 40 to 220 days. Date of start of filling phase also varies widely, depending on the year, weather conditions and varies between 40 – 70 days. On Lake Sarez it ranges from 29 / IV 10 / VII, on the lake. Iskanderkul 1 / IV 10 / V /.
The lake level fluctuates during the year. With instantaneous fluctuations in the value of the lakes do not normally exceed two meters, sewage lakes, whose water is filtered through the thickness of the dam, or moraine, level fluctuation is much greater. At Lake Sarez in some years it reaches 12 meters. Stationary observations of ice thickness and ice events began with the 40-ies of XX century. great stuff by date of occurrence and the end of the ice phenomena was collected, freeze-setting etc .. The duration of the freeze-up of lakes in Central Asia is determined by the severity of winters: for flat areas it averages 10 – 100 days, mountain 60 – 180 days and more . So, in 1962 on the lake. Karakul duration of the freeze-up was 218 days. The thickness of ice on high mountain lakes up to 100 cm or more. It depends on the amount of negative daily average air temperatures and the specifics of the lakes. Example: if the sum of the negative mean daily air temperatures equal to -6000 C, on the lake. Karakul ice thickness reaches 50 cm, while in the Lake Sarez, has a very significant amount of heat, the thickness of the ice is 10-20 cm.
In view of the considerable diversity of natural areas of Central Asia and the characteristic high-altitude zone of landscapes, as well as significant differences in moisture areas, different and hydrochemical composition of lake water. Lake Pamir-Alai are hydrocarbonate, and the Eastern Pamirs – sulfate. The last group includes the Karakul Lake, Rangkul, Shorkul, Kurukkul, Kakyrkul. By total salinity lakes differ significantly from each other in the range of 0.5 to 11 g / kg. They all belong to the class of sulfate, magnesium group, III type.
Apart in this series is Sasykkulskaya group of lakes located in the intermountain basin, and with over 30 inland lakes. As a result, drying of lakes there is a process of concentration and accumulation of salts solutions.
The main fresh water lakes are Sarez (16.1 km3), Jashilkul (0.52 km3) Iskanderkul (0.17 km3) and other, smaller (photo 15, 16). Most fish lakes are Jashilkul and Bulunkul. On the shores of Karakul breed rare brown seagull, and Zorkul, where the river originates Pamir – the source of the Panj, wintering geese Indian: these lakes, as well as some others, are part of the Tajik National Reserve.
But the main value of our lakes – it is fresh water, which is on our planet every year is becoming scarcer and more expensive, and therefore our fresh mountain lake – one of the greatest natural wealth of the country, that we must preserve and protect from dirt to pass on to our descendants.