Dance in Tajikistanis generally popular-cultural element of which is called “Raks” in the native language and sometimes occurs in the “Bozi” forms, “Usul” or “Argusht”. Tajik dance is closely associated with the life of people, accompanying all the significant events of his life: birth, family celebrations, and entertainment. etc. It has a long history. The most well-known Tajik dance in terms of the categories considered Pamir and Kulyab which are explained below.
Tajik dance photo
The history of dance in Tajikistan:Ancient monuments of the fine arts and the written sources indicate wide dissemination of music and dance in a life of Tajiks ancestors. For example, the image of a group of dancing people with tails can be seen in rock art 2-1 millennium BC in Saymalitash caves in the Ferghana Valley; pairwise pantomicheskie dances painted on rocks in the mountains stones Sarmish (1st millennium BC, 60 km north of the city of Navoi). etc. According to Avesta, a collection of religious texts, the ancient sacred complex songs sung with pantomimic dances. Bacchus Gallery of images appears on the plug-in Ryton 2. BC from the Parthian Nisa. Among the multifaceted colorful participants – naked or covered with skin and nude dancers.
Videos (Tajik Dance)
Figures of musicians, dancers, acrobats embodied in a number of monuments of Greco-Bactrian art. Dance was common in the kingdom of the Kushan period (2-1 centuries BC). So, on the walls of the room in the northern excavation Khalchayan (near the modern city Dehnau) displayed some court ceremony. Here you can see the dancing girls. dancer figurine excavated Zartepa hill (Gold Hill, near Termez), which is the remains of one of the cities of the Kushan period. Isledovateli bind the dancer with the rite dedicated to the cult of Dioonisa. At the top of the bas-relief on the wall of the palace Varhasha (VIII century) also depicts a dancer, dancing with a scarf thrown over his head. In ancient Penjikent (VII-VIII centuries) on one of the wall paintings found fragments of ritual dances image.
Dancing Tajik girls at the festival of Nowruz (photo)
Particularly interesting is the strength of artistic performance figure of a young dancer in dance, with a musical instrument in their hands. (Note that this dance is there and now). There was found charred figural carving depicting a dancer. The art of dance artists, especially dancers of Samarkand and Bukhara, was on so high that it attracted the attention of neighboring eastern countries. Chinese historical records note a lot of popularity in China in the VI-VIII centuries Central Asian tour dancers, among whom were Tajiks of Samarkand and Khujand. So, given the description of the Samarkand female dancing on the ball. We have heard laudatory odes of dancers written by Chinese poets.
The “Shahnameh” Firdausi (X century) and a number of other works of the classics of Persian-Tajik literature when describing feasts and entertainments, we find not only the names of ancient musical instruments and scant reports of male and female dancers.
Video funny dance in Tajik
In XV-a-century palaces and town squares were feasting and theater festivals. They often involved the dancers. Zayniddin Vasifi Mahmoudi in his memoirs “Badoe Vakoe Street” ( “Amazing Events” the XVI century.) Mentions many Tajik singers and musicians of his time. Among them are the names of the most prominent dancers – Maksudali, Tohiri Chakka, Mohchukurak, and others. According to the testimony of Babur (XV century.), The famous dancer of his time was Saad Badr. Dancers and depicted in miniatures 15-17 centuries.
So deeply rooted ancient Tajik folk dance. It is based on ancient rituals, games, mime, stories of life. Tajik dance has come a long and difficult path. Moving on from generation to generation, he preserved many ancient features, acquired new styles. With the advent and introduction of professionals and various accessories are not only complicated dance technique, but also expands its variety of genres. By category content, form, character and performance in a number of other features folk dance is divided into several groups.
Video Pamir dance
The oldest are the dance-pantomime based on the imitation of animals and birds ( “Sherbozi” – “Levý”, “Ukobbozi” – “Eagle”, “Rubohbozi” – “Lisa”, “Nail lacquer Bozi” – “Stork,” and so on. d.) Actors wearing masks or quasi-realistic manner with great vivacity of observation and more distinct movements are passed on the habits of these animals.
In ancient times, any ritual dances. Some of them have survived. In the remote villages of the Pamirs I kept dancing around the dead – “Poyamal”.
Usually Poyamal executed by close relatives of the deceased, priemuschestvenno women. Equally ancient dances, reproducing labor – “Guillem Vift” (woven rugs), “Shibitz” (Crushing wool), “Angusht Oshpaz” (Dance of the cook) and so on. It has long been known for macho dancing, built on strong dexterous movements, sharp turns and sudden stops, ending with sculptural poses. These include “Shamsherbozi” (Sabre Dance), “Kordbozi” (Dance of knives), “Kaltakbozi” (dance with sticks), well preserved in the Pamirs.
Another category of form dancing dancing with musical instruments in the hands of a private and complementary accompaniment: “Argusht bo Dutor” (with dutar Dance), “Argusht bo doira” (Dance with a tambourine), “Rax bo gidzhak” (Dance with gidzhak) and other . A special type of Tajik folk dance with objects: spoons (Koshukbozi), jars (Argusht bo Cuza), tea (Choynikbozi), stone kastenetami (Kayrokbozi), clay dish (Tablakbozi) and others.
For one of the groups include theatrical, finished choreographic miniatures, the same as “Aspbozi” or “Harakbozi” (dance on a wooden horse), “Ushtur ba Katori” (Dance of a caravan of camels), “Kemabozi” (Dance of the boat), and others. These dances organically combined with pantomime involving gestures and movements, elements of dramatic games and circus arts. They often performed and is still performed during the medieval folk pageants and carnivals are now in the holiday Navruz.
Dance Tajiks organically included in the submission of the actors – maskharabozov, folk puppet theater in creative folk circus artists (such as high-wire that connected complicated circus acts with dance on the rope, hodulehodov, artists, juggling jugs, dishes). The folk musical dramas Pamir – “The Old Man”, “Mongol”, “Dervishes’ dance is one of the main means of expression, often replacing the dialogues and monologues of the characters of the play. Wealth has given rise to a variety of subjects of folk dances and original rhythms, movements, shapes, positions, drawing. Despite the different styles, the variety of performing style, Tajik dance has a number of common features. For him, first of all characterized by a plot. Not only is the entire dance, but even a single movement is the basis of the plot. Expressive movements, mime dancer talks about her life, attitude, respect for nature. The Tajik dance focuses on the movement of the hands, head and shoulder girdle. Movement of the legs (strokes) are of secondary importance. Hands performers constantly in action, they seem to weave patterns, sing, expressing thoughts and feelings. Arm movements are in harmony with the movements of the entire body, with facial expressions and motion gaming performer. Only in this combination they reveal the content of the dance.
One of the characteristic features of Tajik folk dancing is improvisation. This often favored due to the lack of strict sequence of movements. Artist following the rhythm, the mood of the dance, improvisation, tempo and picks the appropriate artistic means. This is reflected not only in the selection of movements, but also in the composition, in the figure of dance, which is entirely the veil on the skill level and dancer fantasy. Tajik dance accompanied doira accompaniment, ensemble of folk instruments. The streets and squares during the holidays, carnivals and weddings he performed to the accompaniment of wind and percussion instruments. Socio-economic and historical differences, geographical natural conditions, language, identity and way of life of different regions of Central Asia, the Tajik population led to the formation of several Tajik dance styles.
Most definitely think Pamir, mountain, Bukhara and style of Northern Tajikistan. Each of them is divided into a kind of group, t. To. Many areas have their favorite dance special performance style, his style of costume, distinctive rhythms and melodies that reflect the character and temperament of the inhabitants of the area. In the 19th and early 20th centuries. in Bukhara, Samarkand, Shahrizsabze, Kerki, Kermine with the indigenous population of the Tajik folk art professional dancers “Sozanda” was distributed. The term sozanda designated as the genre of Tajik national musical and dance art, so its executors. This art was born in those days, when the prevailing culture of the ancient Central Asian cities, crafts flourished, there are new kinds of family celebrations and amusements and the corresponding new types of communication between people.
Art created reached a high level of skill especially in Bukhara. Dancers are only serving the female half of the house, completely isolated from men’s eyes; performed at weddings and other family celebrations. Actresses united in the troupe (Dasta) of 3 to 4 people., Among which there were one or two dancers (sozanda) and two or three doyristki. Most troupes included a dancer and three doyristok. Special schools for the training of professional dancers did not exist. Typically, each dancer had one or two students from among their relatives or close friends.
From a young age in the everyday life of educated artistic dance and musical taste pupil. She acquired the necessary skills. Normal sozanda repertoire consisted of dancing, “Kai-rakbozi” Ravonna << >>, << >> and << Sokinoma 3ang “. All cyclic: start slowly, with restraint; with a focus on song and dance movements are used as background. Then follows a quick dance melodies “ufar” or the first “Furovard”, where the actress, moving to the relatively easy living lyrics, interested in dance. Then comes the second furovard – fast dance rhythm. Here, the text becomes quite simple in nature and therefore offers more space for more frequent dance tempo. After that, a gradual rise begins the final transition to pure choreography – to the “Highlands”, which requires living tempo, energetic rhythm, generous manifestation of feeling and temperament.
Dance sozanda for its high artistic level of choreographic and musical structure, metro-rhythmic elements is very different from other dance areas populated by Tajiks. At the court of the Emir of Bukhara there was a specific company sozanda, which amounted to half of the female dance theater – “Urda hosagi” (personal harem), which ruled the mother of the Emir. The troupe taken most talented e glorified sozanda of people. They sought emir syschitsa. The dance troupe Male half taken capable young dancers from poor families. In the second half of the 19th century. Bukhara famous sozanda Ёkut Oraz and Shoista.
Malika – the star of dancers of Tajikistan
In the last quarter of the 19th and early 20th centuries. great fame won sozanda Anbar Ashk, Kelin Guli Surkh. In the first two decades of the 20th century. enjoyed wide popularity Yodgor names latofathon, Pocci (Podshoh) Mullodzhoi (or Mullocha). In the 20-ies. our century have found recognition among viewers and such talented e sozanda -like Your Karkigi, Mihaly Karkigi, Khalili Karkigi where, Chervonhon, Gubur, Bachmann, Noshpoti, Naboth, turunj and others. Hudozhestveinye tradition sozanda people live in and develop. After the October Revolution, there is the highest flowering of folk dance.
Dance art is widely included in the life and social life of the Soviet man. Dances and songs accompanied by all Soviet holidays. In the 20-30-ies. folk dances were mostly transferred to the PA stage and folk form intact. With the strengthening of the professional theaters and improvement of skills of the Soviet choreographers, they returned to the development and enrichment, at the same time genuinely popular and colorful folk dance theater changed structure. Along with individual dance last appear, for centuries, were absent in the life of the people, the pair dancing men and women dancing quartet and finally, mass dances and dance suites.
In the past holidays and family celebrations danced simultaneously by several people. But it was the performance of different artists, enthusiastic about their dance and show their skills, creating a massive dance choreographers selected characteristic movements of Tajik dance and other expressive plastic means, sought and found the drawing and composition, subjects them to a specific plan, plot. Not losing the connection with folk material, they created something new. So there were massive dance with pitchers, Suzane dance embroidery, cotton Dance et al., Based on the traditions of folk dances, depicting the process of labor dance, pantomime game means.
Tajik Fayzpbaev choreographers M., A. Islamova, A. Protsenko, G. Valamatzade, B. Glleyzovskol-the later Azimov, Kh Khakimov, R. Bakkal, Amiizade Z. et al., As well as many representatives of Soviet art , characterized Hunt orchestration folklore with creative imagination. Their dances are inherent in the deepening of the content enrichment means of expression and the preservation of a unique folk art. Female and male dance acquired new quality. Female dance, for example, ceased to be only a languid, delayed, limited in his movements. New solos are full of dignity, of freedom, of joy, of optimism, which makes the execution of rapid, energetic, temperamental, cheerful character. New time has brought new themes, plots, characters. There are new dances such as << >> Shodiyona ( “Joy”), Dugonaho << “(” Friends “),” Vohuri “(” Meeting “), and others.
In creating new dances based on folk, in the promotion of the best folk choreographic art samples greater role played Tajik State Philharmonic Society (organized in 1937), Tajik Academic Opera and Ballet Theatre. Aini, musical and drama theaters Khujand, Khorog, Kulob, folk theater and musical amateur groups. In 1965, Gossudarstvenny ensemble “Lola” Tajik dance was established (Artistic Director GR Valamatzade), who built his repertoire of dance on a wide wealth of Tajikistan and the countries of the Soviet and non-Soviet East. The ensemble has toured successfully in the Soviet Union, Afghanistan, Iran, India, France, Belgium and others. Countries. In 1978 the dance ensemble << Zebo “, which quickly gained popularity among viewers (artistic director Z. Aminzadeh) was established under the State Committee on Television and Radio of the Republic. Among the biggest folk dance masters – B. Khamidov, S. Khodzhaev, Pasar H., G. Valamatzade, Isomova O., A. Iskhokova, A. Asimov, A. Nosirova and others.